In the part (1) we have seen that conscious is the second name of soul (it means it is the human conscious which moves out of human body, when the human body expires). This universe has been created for trial of human conscious/ soul. Every event an individual has to face in his/her life is inherently embedded in his/her conscious since before the individual’s birth, and is predetermined; but all such events are predetermined and embedded in the individual’s conscious on the basis of events/ stimuli to be faced by the individual in his/her life. It means that all events embedded inherently in the conscious of an individual may be shaped by generating certain stimuli/events externally in the life; in other words, the events/ stimuli generated by an individual externally in her/his life through effort are what would have been made basis of all events inherently embedded in the individual’s conscious since before his/her birth. In short, we can train our conscious/ soul by generating certain events/stimuli externally in the life so that our soul/conscious may take right decisions and opt for righteous deeds in response to such events/ stimuli.
It may please be appreciated that soul has been declared by Quran as ‘amr e Ilahi’; an amr e Ilahi is what is created without involvement of human deeds; and ‘Sunnat e Ilahi’ is what is brought into being through human deeds. As far as creation of soul/conscious is concerned, it is ‘amr e Ilahi’; but as far as working of conscious/soul is concerned, it is ‘Sunnat e Ilahi’.
Now we dwell on the point how human conscious/ soul may be trained so that human conscious may opt for such choices/ deeds which are based on submission to Allah’s Lordship.
Broadly speaking, human conscious/ soul may work in three forms. The first is ‘nafs e ammara’- it is such form of conscious/soul which opts for bad deeds. The second is ‘nafs e luwwama’- it is such soul’s/ conscious’ form which opts for good deeds. The third is ‘nafs e mutmaenna’- it is such form of conscious/ soul which becomes fully submissive to Allah’s Lordship in all worldly matters. In order to elevate human conscious/ soul from the stage of ‘ammara’ to the stage of ‘mutmaenna’, our spiritual leaders usually focus on meditation and remembrance (of Allah); these may be called internal tools to generate such stimuli/ events which may lead the conscious/soul to adopt righteous deeds. When an individual, through meditation and Remembrance of Allah starts associating himself with Allah, it becomes difficult for him to commit a bad deed. But such internal tools of spiritual training can be employed only if the individual is mentally prepared to go for such tools. As vast majority shows no interest in employing such internal tools, these internal tools to train conscious/ soul are not sufficient for the purpose. External tools in the form of social systems also need to be employed for the purpose.
As stimuli for adopting bad deeds may come to an individual’s conscious from all social elements like laws, traditions, customs, morals, professional ethics and business practices etc., all these social elements should be designed so as to lead the human conscious to adopt righteous deeds and total submission to Allah’s Lordship. That is why Islam assigns individual as well as collective responsibilities to Muslims to promote such social environment which may enable an individual’s conscious to take righteous decisions in all fields of social life. In fact, addressee of every responsibility assigned in Quran- except those assigned to the person of our Nabi (s.a.w.w)- has been stated in plural form; this point underlines the fact that every Quranic responsibility has to be fulfilled by the individual as well as the people (for details plz see http://secondriseofislam.blogspot.com/2011/04/aqamat-e-deen.html#links). The required conducive social environment is created through establishing relevant social institutions in all fields of social life.
It may be appreciated that human conscious tends to adopt such deeds which are lesser harmful and more pleasing and more beneficial for the human. It means if human conscious opts for a bad deed, he/she would do so because he/she thinks it is lesser harmful to do it; or it is more pleasure giving; or it is more beneficial to him/her. If social institutions are created in the way that a bad deed is punished and snubbed through legal ways, and non-legal ways (i.e. through moral values; customs; ethics and practices etc.), then bad deeds would no longer remain lesser harmful, or more pleasing, or more beneficial. In this way these external tools of spiritual training become as much important as the internal tools of spiritual training i.e. meditation and remembrance (of Allah). I don’t know what Allama Iqbal (r.a) had in his mind about concept of spiritual democracy; but spiritual democracy may be established through employing external and internal tools of spiritual training as discussed above (continued).