In part (1) of this article https://secondriseofislam.blogspot.com/2016/07/change-and-changeability-in-islamic.html#links we have seen that basic sources of Islamic thinking are Quran and Hadith. Islamic thinking may be defined as a religious approach adopted by the Muslims of a particular age/ century to solve the problems and implement Islam in their lives. One of the peculiarities of Islamic thinking is that it is always initiated by a Mujadded who initiates Islamic thinking for his current century. Every century/age has its distinct Islamic thinking but Islamic thinking nourished in previous age/ century remains relevant in coming ages/centuries as well though it becomes lesser prominent than the Islamic thinking of the current century/age. The third peculiarity of Islamic thinking is that it is always need based. The fourth peculiarity of Islamic thinking initiated by a mujadded is that it is order of the day and dominates all other religious thoughts prevailing among the Muslims in his age/ century.
As mentioned above, Islamic thinking is always need based but Islamic thinking is not only need based but also principles based; Islamic thinking is always based on principles contained in Quran and Hadith (Sunnah) which are fixed principles and do not change with the changing needs whereas needs always keep on changing. The question arises how unchanged Islamic principles are applied to the changing needs of Muslims and human societies.
Actually the principles contained in Quran and Hadith deal with permanent needs of human societies (the only exception are those principles which deal with strategies/policies to implement Deen. For details plz see https://secondriseofislam.blogspot.com/2016/05/interpretation-of-deen-and-human_25.html). In other words, , Islamic principles are permanent needs of human societies. Permanent needs may be defined as needs which keep on emerging from time to time with varying degree; need for application of Islamic principles also keep on emerging from time to time with varying degree. The peculiarity of Islamic thinking initiated by a Mujadded is based on such principles whose application is more needed than the other principles but it does not mean such other principles are not enforced. The other principles are enforced as lesser prominent principles in the current age/ century.
Another peculiarity of Islamic thinking initiated by a Mujadded is that it is order of the day in his century. It is dominant over all other religious thoughts prevailing among the Muslims in his age/ century. This quality of Islamic thinking initiated by a mujadded makes it easy to identify who may be rightly called as mujadded of his century- mujadded of a century is whose Islamic thinking is dominant over all other religious thoughts in his age/ century; who shapes worldly and spiritual lives of the Muslims of his age more than any other person does.
Under the umbrella of Islamic thinking initiated by a Mujadded, many subordinate Islamic approaches/thoughts may also be nourished; such subordinate religious thoughts may be further elaborations and implications of the Mujadded’s thinking or such subordinate thoughts may be different but not contradictory to the Mujadded’s thinking. Imam Abu Hanifa (r.a), along-with Imam Zaid (r.a) and Imam Jafar Sadiq (r.a) used to make sittings in Masjad e Nabwi to find out Islamic principles to implement Islam and discover solutions of problems. We know principles of zaidi jurisprudence are almost identical to those of Hanifi jurisprudence. Similarly Jafri jurisprudence presents most of the principles similar to Hanifi jurisprudence, if not in name but in connotation. Imam Zaid and Imam Jafar’s Islamic thinking is not contradictory to that of Imam Abu Hanifa’s thinking though these thought processes may be different. We have seen concept of Imamah and khilafah are though different but not contradictory https://secondriseofislam.blogspot.com/2015/07/khilafah-and-imamah-not-contradictory.html. Imam Abu Hanifa’s Islamic thinking was order of the day and shaped worldly and spiritual lives of Muslims of his age/ century. Both Imam Zaid [d.122 AH] and Imam Jafar Sadiq [d. 143 AH] belong to century of Imam Hussain i.e. first century of Mujaddadeen; Imam Abu Hanifa belongs to the second century of Mujaddadeen.
Outside the umbrella of the Mujadded’s thinking, there may also be religious thoughts contradictory to the Mujadded’s thinking but such contradictory thoughts are always held by a minority. Such minority religious thoughts always prove to be fatal to religious, social, cultural and political harmony of the Muslims of the age/century.
For instance, Kharijites were the first such minority group who adopted religious thinking contradictory to the established Islamic thinking of their ages. This group’s thinking and activities proved really fatal to the unity of Muslims in terms of beliefs and political harmony, and caused much bloodshed among the Muslims. This group did not consider Hadith as a source of Deen. After Kharijites, many other minority groups emerged among the Muslims who adopted thinking contradictory to the established Islamic thinking, and inflicted heavy blows to religious and political harmony of the Muslims. In our age too, we have groups like Ahl e Quran, Qadyanis and Ghamdi cult, who adopted thinking contradictory to the established Islamic thinking; and damaged social, religious harmony among the Muslims; Qadyani went even further to the extent of non-believing in 'Khatm e Nabuwwat', and were rightly declared as non-Muslims.
In order to maintain religious, social and political harmony among the Muslims, it is necessary to control the negative minority thinking contradictory to the established Islamic thinking of the age. The author is not advocating to curb freedom of thinking; every person must be free to think. But any thinking contradictory/different to the established Islamic thinking should be first presented to the ulemas/learned persons before presenting to common people. If learned people/ ulemas declare such thinking as in line or different from the established Islamic thinking, such thinking should be allowed to be propagated among the common people. But if such thinking is declared as contradictory to the established Islamic thinking, such thinking should not be allowed to be propagated among the common people. [for difference between Different and Contradictory plz see https://secondriseofislam.blogspot.com/2015/07/khilafah-and-imamah-not-contradictory.html]. For a fair decision as to what thinking is different and what is contradictory to the established Islamic thinking, such decision may be entrusted to the judiciary which may pass a verdict with the help of learned persons/ ulemas OR a separate forum may be established for the purpose.
Keeping in view the importance of religious thinking for the purpose of religious, social and political harmony, Muslim societies cannot afford leaving newly emerging religious thoughts unattended; such thoughts need to be channelized so that they may not be fatal to Muslims’ societies (concluded).