Some modern scholars which believe in philosophy of ‘wahdatul wajood’ maintain that scientifically too this world may be proved to be a part of Allah’s existence. They argue that Allah says He is ‘nur/light of the whole universe. As the whole universe is made up of matter, and as matter is embodiment of energy/light, it means the whole universe is light/energy. Because Allah is ‘nur’/ light of this universe, it means this universe is part of Allah’s existence.
This above stated argument is not tenable in the light of Quran; actually it is a sheer misunderstanding of Quranic concept of ‘nur’/light. This word ‘nur’ has been used in Quran dozens of times in the sense that it is something/medium which may help people see things in proper context OR do things in the right way.
“And thus We have revealed to you an inspiration/angel with Our command. You did not know what is the Book or [what is] faith, but We have made it a light/ ‘nur’ by which We guide whom We will of Our servants. And indeed, [ Muhammad (s.a.w)], you guide to a straight path” (al-shura-52).
In this verse the word ‘nur’ has been used in the meaning of ‘understanding’ / wisdom/ contained in Quran and this understanding of things help people adopt the right way of doing things.
“So is one whose sadr/frontal part Allah has expanded to [accept] Islam, he is upon a light/ ‘nur’ from his Lord” (al-zumar-22).
This above verse states that a person who properly understands Islam is actually upon ‘nur’.
“So believe in Allah and His Messenger and the ‘nur’ (Quran and sunnah) which We have sent down. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do” (al-taghabun-8).
This above verse states that ‘wahi’ sent down to our Nabi (s.a.w) is ‘nur’. Similarly this word ‘nur’ has been used with the same meanings in dozens of other verses.
Actually almost all the verses-sparring a few- in which word ‘nur’ has been used emphasize that wisdom and understanding of things as enshrined in Quran and ‘wahi’ lead people to the right way of doing things and correct comprehension of things. This quality of Quranic wisdom and understanding is such a obvious and all spread that it is neither confined in the east nor in the west; in other words, things may be comprehended in their proper context and done in the right way everywhere in this universe through wisdom and understanding of things as enshrined in the ‘wahi’ i.e. Quran and Sunnah. This fact has been stated in the following verse.
“Allah is the Light/ ‘Nur’ of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light/ ‘nur’ whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is Knowing of all things” (al-nur-35).
In this above verse, Allah states about Omnipotence and all Embracing quality of ‘Nur’; nothing exists outside the ambit of this ‘Nur’ and nothing can be more omnipotent than this ‘Nur’. As stated already, in Quranic terminology, ‘nur’ is a medium through which things are comprehended in their proper context and through which things are done in the right way. In this verse, Allah states He Himself is ‘Nur’ of the heavens and the earth; in other words, Allah Himself is the medium through which things can be seen in their proper context and deeds may be done in the right way. In other words, it is one of Allah’s qualities to guide people to see things in their proper context and do things in the right manner. It is also stated in this verse that Allah guides to His this quality/ ‘Nur’, whom He wills; it means nobody can see things in the right perspective and do things in the right manner without Allah’s permission; though Allah has reflected His this quality/ ‘Nur’ in Quran and Sunnah, nobody can avail this ‘Nur’/quality without Allah’s permission.
In another verse, Quran states:
“They want to extinguish the light/ ‘nur’ of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it” (al-saf-8).
In this above stated verse, Allah states that He will perfect His light/ ‘Nur’. As ‘Nur’ is the Quranic wisdom and quality to comprehend things properly, Allah has made a prediction in this verse that one day everything contained in this universe will be comprehended through wisdom and understanding contained in the wahi i.e. Quran and sunnah. This verse negates Qadyani opinion that prophetic 'wahi' is continuing. Prophetic wahi is complete but Allah's Nur i.e. prophetic wahi's quality to comprehend things properly will be completed when everything contained in this universe would be comprehended through this Allah's Nur. When everything contained in this universe will be comprehended through prophetic wahi, the quality of prophetic wahi to comprehend things properly would be perfected.
Physical nur/light, as we see it in this universe, is not Allah’s Existence. Allah's 'Nur'-which is Allah's Quality to lead people to right way- and physical 'nur'/light, as we see it in this universe are two different things. We have already seen in the article “Origin of the Universe and Dark Matter” that like everything else matter also has been created in pair. Luminous Matter is what this universe has been made up of; Dark Matter is which existed in space even before Big Bang. Luminous Matter is visible whereas Dark Matter is invisible. In other words, both light and darkness are two states (kafiaat) given to matter; both are two forms of matter. If this physical light is part of Allah’s Existence, then Darkness would also be part of Allah’s Existence. But following verse negates this proposition:
“Allah is the ally of those who believe. He brings them out from darknesses into the light/ ‘nur’. And those who disbelieve - their allies are Taghut. They take them out of the light/ ‘nur’ into darknesses. Those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide eternally therein” (al-baqra-257).
This verse negates the opinion that darkness (which is a form/state of matter) is a part of Allah’s Existence; it is the job of disbelievers to lead people to darkness. If Darkness has been part of Allah’s Existence, it would not be job of disbelievers to lead to Darkness.
" …..Say, "Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light/ ‘nur’?....” (al-r’ad-16).
As explained above, in all verses-sparring a few- word ‘nur’ has been used with the meaning of a medium to comprehend things properly and do things in the right way. However in a few verses, this word ‘nur’ has also been used in the meaning of physical light. For instance, Quran states:
“And made the moon therein [in heavens] light/ ‘nur’ and made the sun a burning lamp?” (Nuh-16).
However, it may please be appreciated that even if word ‘nur’ is used with meaning of physical light (in this sense too, it is medium to see physical things) it cannot be taken as part of Allah’s Existence because physical light can be seen with human eyes by everyone but Allah cannot be seen through human eyes. Quran states:
“The eyes attain Him not, but He attains the eyes; He is the All-subtle, the All-aware” (al-anaam-103).
Similarly al-baqra-257 and al-r’ad-16, as explained above, negate the concept that physical light is part of Allah’s Existence.
We may conclude that theory of ‘wahdatul wajood’ is not tenable when analyzed in the light of Quran. Physical light as we see it cannot be part of Allah’s Existence. The peculiarity of Allah’s Existence is that nothing is like Him. He, even in infinitely tiny/lesser part of His Existence, cannot be labeled as similar to anything; He cannot be similar to physical light. He is Allah even in infinitely tiny/lesser part of His Existence and as such He is unique; nothing is like Him; He cannot be tinkered with; He is devoid of all deficiencies. If He is not devoid of deficiencies even in His infinitely tiny/lesser part, He is not Allah who is devoid of all deficiencies (continued).