Time and space are not something created; they are Allah’s eternal qualities. According to one ‘hadith’, Allah has forbidden us from criticizing ‘time’ and has labeled ‘time’ as His Own Self.
In the article “Time Travel” we have seen that Time and space are considered as a twin and interdependent phenomenon. Time may be defined as a distance between two points in space. Simply speaking, if a person moves from point A to point B, the duration required for space travelled/ covered between points A and B may be called Time to reach from A to B. In other words, if space between A and B is expanded, the time to reach from A to B will be expanded; and if the space between A and B is contracted/ condensed, time to reach from A to B will be shortened. It means the same event (in this case moving from A to B) will require more (expanded) time to happen, if space is expanded; and the same event will require lesser time to happen, if space is condensed/ contracted.
We have also seen that Sura al-maarij states that “Lord of the Ascending Stairways. The angels and the Spirit will ascend to Him in a Day the extent of which is fifty thousand years” (al-ma,arij-3,4). These stairways or gates are used by Hazrat Gabrael (as) and other angels to reach to such divine proximity from where they receive commandments from Allah, and such ascendance of angels from earth to seventh sky happens within a DAY (twenty four hours) which is actually equal to fifty thousand years on earth. It means events happen quicker on 1st sky as we move from 1st sky to upper skies; the events occurring in fifty thousand years on earth take one day/24 hours in seventh sky to occur on earth. In other words, one second spent in the seventh sky would be equal to 211.22 days spent on earth; it means the events which are seen to be happened in one second in seventh sky would happen in 211.22 days on earth. That is why Allah states: “Indeed, they see it [as] distant, But We see it [as] near”(al-ma,arij-6,7). It also explains why 'meraj' was possible only within a part of night; the events witnessed by Hazrat Muhammad (saw) during the ‘journey of meraj’, would take thousands of years to take place according to earth time. It also explains return of Hazrat Masih (as) from an upper sky (i.e. fourth sky) to earth as much a young man as he was at the time of his exaltation - he would have stayed in the upper sky for a short period of time, but events happened in that short period would have taken thousands of years passed on earth.
In the article ‘Allah’s Existence/ ‘Arsh e Elahi’, we have seen if events happening in 211.22 days on earth can be seen to be happen so in one second in seventh sky, from the same analogy it seems possible that all events happening from beginning to end of this world can happen in a single moment in such a frame of Time and Space which exist separately from frames of time and space of seven skies. Allah is not bound to operate keeping within ambits of Time and Space in seven skies. Quran says about process of creation: “For to anything which We have willed, We but say the word, "Be", and it is” (al-nahl-40). From this verse it is evident that anything which is willed by Allah happens forthwith. It is possible only in such frame of Time and Space which exists separately from frames of time and space of seven skies.
We can say that Time and space may be contracted/expanded to such a point where all events happening from beginning to end of this world may happen in a single moment of time. This testifies our Messenger's (saw) saying that Allah is done with process of creation and its allied matters; it means He is alone as all creatures are already finished. It means Allah even at the present moment is alone; even at the present moment, He is ‘ahad’. Even at the present moment, Allah has such a frame of space and time where all the creations have already been annihilated; that is why He is alone and 'Ahad' even at present moment. That is why our sufis experience only one existence during meditation/ ‘mushahda-e-zaat’. But it does not mean that the created and the Creator are one; it only means that we experience one existence in such a frame of space and time when the creations have already been annihilated and Allah is already done with business of creations; this frame of time and space may be called Allah's frame of time and space.
All other frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies are to be extinguished; but Allah's frame of time and space is to continue. It does not mean Allah does not exist in other frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies. Actually, Allah exists everywhere in all frames of time and space. The difference between Allah's frame of time and space and other frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies is that Allah's frame of time and space is where Allah is alone, where all creations are already perished. Both kinds of frames of time and space (Allah's and others found in seven skies) are actually single entity but having varying degrees of contraction/expansion.
Allah’s frame of time and space is also called “Arsh e Elahi”; ‘Arsh e Elahi’ or Allah’s frame of time and space is Allah’ Dwelling where Allah exists as ‘Ahad’ but where all the events from the beginning to end of all creations, happening in all frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies, are collected; all stages and finality of all these events is recorded. A person attaining the stage of ‘Fana fillah’ and ‘Baqi billah’ is enabled to observe and feel all events recorded in “Arsh e Elahi” or Allah’s frame of time and space. Allah exists in ‘Arsh e Elahi’ as ‘Ahad’ , but it does not mean events occurring in other frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies are non-existent in “Arsh e Elahi”; actually Allah is ‘Ahad’ /alone in his frame of time and space in the sense that all creations are already annihilated in Allah’s frame of time and space or in “Arsh e Elahi”. At ‘fana fillah and baqi billah’ stage, human soul has NO sense of its existence because all creations are already perished in that frame of time and space. But Allah makes human soul able to feel and observe because human soul actually belongs to such a frame of time and space where he/she is still alive.
But one day all frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies will be extinguished; all creations including human souls will be annihilated; that would be end of final stages of human journey; that would be end of ‘fana fillah’ and ‘baqi billah’ stage of human journey; after that no human soul would be able to observe and feel events recorded in "Arsh e Elahi". after that no human soul will exist to be graced with stages of ‘fina fillah’ and ‘baqi billah’". “Everyone upon the earth will perish”(al-rahman-26). Only Allah’s ‘Arsh’/ frame of time and space will exist for ever.
In the article “Origin of Universe and Dark Matter”, we have seen that time and space were always present already before every time Big Bang took place in the past to create the universe; as universe has been created by countless times in the past, every time space and time were already present before every time Big Bang took place to create the universe.
One may argue that it might be that every time universe is destroyed, time and space is also destroyed; time and space are created afresh at every Big Bang. Such an argument is not tenable on the basis of Quran. According to Quran time and space are continuing since undetermined time in the past.
“On the day, i. when We will roll up sky like the rolling up of the scroll for writings, ii. as We originated the first time, iii. We shall reproduce it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will bring it about” (al-anbiya-104).
If we take the words ‘on the day’ as applying only to the first phrase, the meaning remains incomplete and does not make any sense. Actually, in this verse the words ‘on the day’ apply to all three phrases ending up into the words ‘We shall reproduce it’. It means the day the sky will be rolled up, it will be reproduced the same day. We know that the concept of ‘day’ is associated with time. Therefore, we may infer that ‘time’ existing before the destruction of the sky continues to exist after the destruction of the sky and reproduction of the sky. In other words, time and space are continuously present before destruction of the sky and after/before reproduction of the sky. As sky will be/is reproduced in the manner it was first time produced, it means time and space were present when sky was produced first time, and time and space are always present before reproduction of sky each time through Big Bang. In other words, time and space are continuing since their inception; time and space are not destroyed with the destruction of the sky.
From the foregoing, it becomes evident that ‘time and space’ are, in fact, eternal qualities of Allah; they are not something created. When creation exists, these Allah's qualities (i.e. Space and Time) exist in eight various degrees in terms of contraction/expansion; but when creations will be perished, Space and Time (Allah's eternal qualities) will exist only in one form. The Quran has mentioned many qualities of Allah’s Entity; one such quality is that Allah’s Entity cannot be seen through human eyes. Both Time and Space cannot be seen through human eyes; though both may be perceived through human physical faculties other than human eyes.
“The eyes attain Him not, but He attains the eyes; He is the All-subtle, the All-aware” (al-anaam-103).
“And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "My Lord, show me [Yourself] that I may look at You (through eyes)." [Allah] said, "You will not see Me (through eyes), but look (through eyes) at the mountain; if it should remain in place, then you will see Me." But when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell unconscious. And when he awoke, he said, "Exalted are You! I have repented to You, and I am the first of the believers" (al-aaraf-143).
From these above quoted verses, it is clear Allah cannot be seen through human eyes. Though Allah may be perceived through human physical faculties other than eyes; perceiving of Allah’s Entity through physical faculties other than eyes is called ‘royat e Elahi’. Quran has distinguished between ‘royat’/perceiving’ and ‘seeing with eyes’.
“And you had certainly wished for martyrdom before you encountered it, and you have [now] perceived it [with physical faculties] while you were looking on [with your eyes]” (al-imran-143).
In the above mentioned verse, there is clear distinction between seeing with eyes and perceiving through physical faculties other than eyes. Both Time and Space cannot be seen through human eyes though may be perceived through physical faculties other than eyes. One may argue that space can be seen through human eyes; but actually space is perceived through human physical faculties other than eyes; that is why blind people can also perceive space in the way seeing people perceive it.
From the foregoing, we may conclude that Time and Space are not something created; they are Allah’s Eternal Qualities. These qualities manifest themselves in two forms i.e. firstly, Allah's frame of time and space where Allah exists as 'Ahad'; and secondly, frames of time and space prevailing in seven skies. The first form is to continue for ever, eternally; the second form will be extinguished. Allah's qualities of Time and Space will/can not be perished; only some forms of manifestation of these qualities will be changed into the other.
It may be appreciated that Time and Space are Allah's eternal qualities, but Dark Matter contained by Space is not Allah's eternal quality; Dark Matter is creation. We have seen in " Nature of Space and Dark Matter" that contraction/expansion of space/time means contraction/expansion of Dark Matter. When all creations will be annihilated, Dark Matter will also be annihilated; after that manifestation of Allah's eternal qualities i.e. Space and Time will not be based on Dark Matter.