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Monday, 12 March 2012

Concept of 'Fitnah' and Qadyaniat (1)


                       
Allah has declared ‘fitna’ an evil which is worse than murder. That is why the people involved in ‘fitna’ are held liable to be killed so that ‘fitna’ may be quelled. In the succeeding lines, we will shed light on Quranic concept of ‘fitna’, the types of people involved in ‘fitna’, and the places subjected to ‘fitna’.
Allah says:

“Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors” (al-baqra-190).
“And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- ├«aram until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers” (al-baqra-191).
“Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] ‘Deen’ is for Allah. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors” (al-baqra-193).
“but averting [people] from the way of Allah and disbelief in Him……….. are greater [evil] in the sight of Allah. And fitnah is greater than killing" (al-baqra-217).

From these verses of Sura al-baqra and other Quranic verses dealing with subject of ‘Fitnah’,  following points can be adduced:
I. There are two types of ‘fitnah’; the first type of ‘fitnah’ is to establish non-Islamic systems- political, social, ideological, economic, ethical, administrative or legal systems- OR replacement of Islamic systems with non-Islamic systems. Al-baqra-193 states: “Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] ‘Deen’ is for Allah. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors”.  In this verse, word ‘fitnah’ means replacement of ‘Deen’/ Islamic systems with non-Islamic systems OR establishment of non-Islamic sytems; other  instances,  among many others, in which word ‘fitnah’ has been used in the same sense are al-nisa-91; al-anfal-73, 39; al-baqra-217; al-mumtahanah-5.
  
ii. The second type of ‘fitnah’ is trial which may lead to violations of Islamic systems (al-anfal-28; al-taghabun-15; al-ankabut-10). Such violations of Islamic injunctions /systems do not tantamount to establishment of non-Islamic system or replacement of Islamic systems with non-Islamic ones. 

iii.          Only non-Muslims may be involved in the first type of ‘fitnah’ (al-baqra-217); whereas Muslims may be involved in the second type of ‘fitnah’. The first type of ‘fitnah’ pertains to only Islamic societies (al-baqra-191). In other words, it is only in Islamic societies that non-Muslims’ efforts to establish non-Islamic system or replace Islamic systems with non-Islamic ones are called ‘fitnah’; such efforts by non-Muslims in non-Muslim societies are not called ‘fitnah’. It does not mean that establishment of non-Islamic systems in non-Islamic societies is permissible in Quran; it is not permissible, but it is not called ‘fitnah’ in Quranic terminology.

iv.          The first type of ‘fitnah’ has been declared worse than killing (al-baqra-191; 217). The people involved in this type of ‘fitnah’ may be held liable to be killed by the state/Islamic society (al-baqra-191). But if these non-Muslims restraint propagating ‘fitnah’ (if they give up efforts to establish non-Islamic systems or replace Islamic systems with non-Islamic ones), they are no more liable to be killed by the state(al-baqra-193).

v.           The first type of ‘fitna’ leads to ‘fasad’/ corruption in society; it results in deshaping of Islamic systems and makes them corrupted (al-anfal-73).


vi.          One form of the first type of ‘fitnah’ is ‘irtidad’/sedition from religion (al-ahzaab-14).

There is no denying fact that Islamic systems are based on Quran and Sunnah;  majority of Islamic systems are based on Sunnah. In other words, Islamic systems are what have been designed following our Nabi (saw). The root of every Islamic system is what has been done or stated by our Nabi (saw). In the process of framing and executing Islamic systems- political, social, economic, legal, ethical, administrative, ideological systems- if anybody’s concepts or views run counter to what has been done or stated by our Nabi (saw), such  viewpoints are to be neglected and thrown away. In this process of framing Islamic systems, only such views are accepted which are supported by Quran and Sunnah directly or by inference. In short, Islamic systems’ foundation and essence is sayings and deeds of our beloved Nabi (saw).
Qadyanis believed in prophethood of Mirza Ghulam Qadyani; in other words they believe in only such segments of Sunnah which are supported by views and deeds of mirza ghulam qadyani. No such Quranic interpretation or Sunnah is accepted by Qadyanis, if such Quranic interpretation or Sunnah is contradictory to mirza’s views. As such whatever concept of religious systems Qadyanis have in their minds, such systems have to be based on views of mirza ghulam qadyani. 
Primarily Qadyani people are followers of Mirza Qadyani, and follow Quran and Sunnah only to the extent it is allowed by mirza qadyani's views. In other words primarily Qadyani people are followers of Mirza Qadyani, and follow our Nabi (saww) only to the extent Mirza Qadyani allows them. It is just like we follow previous Messengers only to the extent our Nabi (saww) allows us through Quran and Sunnah; because primarily we, the Muslims, are followers of our Nabi (saww). In this way what Qadyani people are  propagating is not the Deen of our Nabi (saww); rather it is Deen of Mirza Qadyani. Qadyani are trying to establish Mirza Qadyani's un-islamic   systems whose foundation and essence is NOT sayings and deeds of our Nabi (saw) rather whose foundation and essence is mirza’s views.

One may argue that many Muslim sects too follow our Nabi (saww) through views of their scholars/ 'ulema'; if such Muslim sects remain primarily followers of our Nabi (saww), why Qadyani people may not remain primarily followers of our Nabi (saww) by following our Nabi (saww) only through Mirza Qadyani's views. The answer is that it is not included in the Muslim sects' fundamentals of Eman/Faith that they should follow our Nabi (saww) through views of their scholars/ ulema; the Muslim sects take their scholars/ulema' views only as authentic source to ascertain what is contained in Quran and sunnah. It is quite possible that people belonging to a certain Muslim sect switch over from one scholar's views to any other scholar's views, belonging to the same sect or different sect. Such switching over from views of one scholar to another scholar's is permissible according to fundamentals of Eman/Faith having by such Muslim sects, because it is not included in the Muslim sects' fundamentals of Faith/Eman that they should follow our Nabi (saww) and Quran through views of a particular scholar/ ulema.    But it is included in Qadyani people's fundamentals of Faith/Eman that they must primarily follow Mirza Qadyani and follow our Nabi (saww) only to the extent Mirza's views allow them; if any Qadyani does not do so, he does not remain in the Qadyani Eman/Faith.

In short, Muslim sects follow our Nabi (saww) through views of their Imam, scholars/'ulema' because they take thier Imam's, scholar's/ulema's views as the authentic source to know what is contained in Quran and Sunnah; it is not included in fundamentals of their Faith/Eman that if they do not do so, they would be excluded from Islamic Faith/Eman. But Qadyani people take Mirza's views not only as a source to ascertain true sunnah and Quranic interpretation but also as included in the fundamentals of Qadyani Faith/Eman. If a Qadyani does not take Mirza's views as included in fundamentals of Faith/Eman, he is excluded from Qadyani Faith/Eman. But a Muslim's Faith/Eman does not require him to include any particular Imam's, scholar's/ ulema's views as included in the fundamentals of Islamic Faith/Eman; a Muslim may remain a Muslim without believing in views of a particular Imam, scholar/ ulema. 
From the foregoing, one should not adduce that minorities should not be allowed to preach their religions in Islamic societies; the minorities may be allowed to  preach their religion. But there is difference between Qadyani way of preaching and other minorities way of preaching; other minorities preach their religion, but they do not change tenors of Islamic Faith. But Qadyanis preach their religion by changing tenors of Islamic Faith. In this way Qadyanis actually try to change Islamic Ideology. That is why they should not be allowed to preach as our Nabi (s.a.w.w) did not allow 'munafqeen' to preach their religion and burnt down 'masjid e zarrar'. 
   
From this discussion it is evident that Qadyanis are trying to propagate non-Islamic systems in Pakistan and other Muslim societies. As such their activities come under category of ‘fitnah’ of first type. All Muslim societies including Pakistan should deal with Qadyanis’ activities as ‘fitnah’ of first type. There is no other option to quell this ‘fitnah’ which is  leading to ‘fasad’/ deshaping of Islamic systems in the words of al-anfal-73. This ‘fitnah’ is also promoting ‘irtidad’ in the words of al-ahzab-14. (Plz also see my article "Propagation and Enforcement of Islam and Qadyaniat) (continued).



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