secondriseofislam@blogspot.com

Saturday, 25 May 2013

'Al-insan al-kamil' and 'khatam e nabuwwat' (1)



           

A group associated with Mr. Javed Ghamdi is nurturing viewpoint that  great Sufis in our past history were entertaining views repugnant to belief of ‘khatam e nabuwwat’. In support of their views, this tiny group is putting forth the proofs from writings of those great Sufis. In the succeeding lines, we will analyze all those so called proofs extracted from writings of our great Sufis and see how much they have been misunderstood by the afore-mentioned group. As so called proofs have been extracted from Urdu writings, the author will reproduce these extracts verbatim where required.

i          The first extract states:                            ۔ عبد الکریم الجیلی ٢٨نے لکھا
:

ان الانسان الکامل هو القطب الذی تدور عليه افلاک الوجود من اوله الٰی اٰخره وهو واحد منذکان الوجود الی ابد الاٰبدين، ثم له تنوع فی ملابس و يظهر فی کنائس فيسمی به باعتبار لباس، ولا يسمی به باعتبار لباس اٰخر، فاسمه الاصلی الذی هو له محمد وکنيته ابو القاسم ووصفه عبداللّٰه ولقبه شمس الدين، ثم له باعتبار ملابس اخری اسامی وله فی کل زمان اسم ما يليق بلباسه فی ذلك الزمان. فقد اجتمعت به صلی اللّٰه عليه وسلم وهو فی صورة شيخی شرف الدين اسمٰعيل الجبرتی وکنت اعلم انه النبی صلی اللّٰه عليه وسلم وکنت اعلم انه الشيخ. (ورقه ٤٦ اب ٢٩ )
''انسان کامل وہ مدار ہے جس پر اول سے آخر تک وجود کے سارے افلاک گردش کرتے ہیں، اور جب وجود کی ابتدا ہوئی، اُس وقت سے لے کر ابدالآباد تک وہ ایک ہی ہے، پھر اُس کی گوناگوں صورتیں ہیں اور وہ یہودونصاریٰ کی عبادت گاہوں میں ظاہر ہوتا ہے۔ چنانچہ اُس کی ایک صورت کے لحاظ سے اُس کا ایک نام رکھا جاتا ہے، جبکہ دوسری صورت کے لحاظ سے اُس کا وہ نام نہیں رکھا جاتا۔ اُس کا اصلی نام محمد ہے۔ اُس کی کنیت ابو القاسم، وصف عبد اللہ اور لقب شمس الدین ہے ؛ پھر دوسری صورتوں کے لحاظ سے اُس کے دوسرے نام ہیں، اور ہر زمانہ میں جو صورت وہ اختیار کرتا ہے، اُس کے لحاظ سے اُس کا ایک نام ہوتا ہے۔ میں نے اُسے اپنے شیخ شرف الدین اسمٰعیل الجبرتی کی صورت میں اِس طرح دیکھا کہ مجھے یہ بات بھی معلوم تھی کہ وہ نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ہیں اور میں یہ 

This para has been quoted by Mr. Ghamdi group out of context. Actually the contents contained in this para have their context in the concept of ‘Insan e Kamil’; a concept propounded by Ibne Arbi. Abdul Karim al-Jili, whose writing has been quoted above, is one of the exponents of Ibne Arbi’s philosophy. In order to put above quoted extract in the proper context, the concept of ‘Insan e Kamil’, as propounded by Ibne Arbi and explained by Abdul Karim Al-Jili, needs to be understood properly. This concept of ‘Insan e Kamil’ is actually a logical outcome of ‘Theory of Wahdatul Wajood’ expounded by Ibne Arbi. According to Ibne Arbi’s theory, existence is only one i.e. the Creator who is present everywhere in this universe, and there is no room for any other existence in this universe because two entities cannot exist at the same place. Therefore he concludes this universe exists within  the Creator’s existence. The Creator is infinite/ undetermined but universe is finite/ determined. Where the Creator’s existence becomes finite/ determined, it no longer remains the Creator’s infinite/undetermined existence, rather it becomes creation. In other words, in one way this universe is the Creator’s reflection/existence; but, in other way, this universe is creation. Ibne Arbi justifies this pattern of existence on the basis of our Nabi’s (saw) saying that “ Allah was a hidden treasure. When HE desired to be known, He created this universe/creation”. According to Ibe Arbi, God knows Himself through this universe and makes Himself known through this universe. In other words, God knows Himself as a subject through Himself as an object. Obviously, this process of knowing and being known is to be carried out by conscious beings/ creation through knowledge and self-realization. But every conscious being’s/human being’s knowledge and self-realization about God’s objective is not perfect; human beings stand at various levels of knowledge and self-realization about Ultimate Reality/ God. God cannot know Himself perfectly through human beings having imperfect knowledge and self-realization about God. That is why Ibne Arbi has taken resort to concept of ‘Insan e Kamil’; ‘Insan e Kamil’/ Reality of Muhammad (saw) is an entity which is paragon of all Names of Allah and as such Divine knowledge is perfectly transmitted to that entity and that entity further transmits such divine knowledge to other prophets, saints and people.  In other words, ‘Insan e Kamil’ is a perfect eye through which God knows Himself perfectly. 

 It may be noted that according to philosophy of 'Insan e Kamil', there is difference between the person of our Nabi (saww) and 'The Reality of Muhammad i.e. 'Insan e Kamil'. The person of our Nabi (saww) is only one manifestation of 'Reality of Muhammad/ 'Insan e Kamil', but the person of our Nabi (saww) has been elevated to embrace  all attributes/Divine Names assigned to 'The Reality of Muhammad/ 'Insan e Kamil', and as such the person of our Nabi (saww) has become perfect person through which Allah knows Himself perfectly.

 Other prophets, saints, and people may comprise of some of Divine Names assigned to 'Insan e Kamil'/ 'Reality of Muhammad' but the person of our Nabi (saww) has all the Divine Names assigned to the entity of 'Insan e Kamil'/ 'Reality of Muhammad', and as such has all Divine Names bestowed upon all prophets, saints and people combined. In other words, the person of our Nabi (saww) is the perfect manifestation of the entity of 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil' whereas other prophets/saints/people are imperfect manifestation of 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil'.  The entity of Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e Kamil is called Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e Kamil, because the person of our Nabi (s.a.w.w) is the perfect manifestation of all attributes/ Divine Names assigned to this entity. That is why oftenly the words "our Nabi (s.a.w.w)" and words "Insan e Kamil/ Reality of Muhammd" are used as alternative words; but, in fact, person of our Nabi (s.a.w.w) and Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e Kamil are two different entities.
 In fact, ‘Insan e Kamil’/ Reality of Muhammad is a Natural system/ Principle through which Divine knowledge is transmitted to all  prophets, saints, and people. In this way, prophets, saints, and people belonging to various periods are manifestation of ‘Insan e Kamil’-for the respective periods- to the extent they receive Divine knowledge from the ‘Insan e Kamil’/ 'Reality of Muhammad' and transmit that Divine knowledge to others.  Other prophets, saints and people may be 'Insan e Kamil' for their respective periods, to the extent they recieve partial Divine knowledge from the 'Insan e Kamil/ Reality of Muhammad'; but our Nabi (s.a.w.w) is 'Insan e Kamil' for all periods, and our Nabi s.a.w.w. is embodiment of whole knowledge attributed to Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e Kamil.
 [The person of 'Insan e kamil' is different from a common person in that ‘insane e kamil’ receives Divine knowledge through ‘wahi’ and transmits such knowledge through wahi; a person can also make wahi to others (for details see my article “Wahi, Intuition and their Implications”. But a common person acquires knowledge through learning and transmits through teaching]. 

Now we turn to the first extract quoted above.   When Abdul Karim Jili says about ‘Insan e Kamil’:

،" اور ہر زمانہ میں جو صورت وہ اختیار کرتا ہے، اُس کے لحاظ سے اُس کا ایک نام ہوتا ہے۔ میں نے اُسے اپنے شیخ شرف الدین اسمٰعیل الجبرتی کی صورت میں اِس طرح دیکھا کہ مجھے یہ بات بھی معلوم تھی کہ وہ نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ہیں اور میں یہ بھی جانتا تھا کہ وہ میرے شیخ ہیں۔''

He does not mean that our Nabi (saww)' had been incarnated in the form of his sheikh. Actually Jili is not referring to the person of our Nabi (saww); rather he is referring to the 'Reality of Muhammad'. Jili is saying that his shaikh was manifestation of 'Reality of Muhammad'; he is not saying that his shaikh is the person of Muhammad (saww). Jili is not equating his shaikh with the person of our Nabi (saww) because concept of ‘Insan e kamil’ does not equate any saint and even any prophet to our Nabi (s.a.w.w). This concept of ‘Insan e Kamil’ states that knowledge of our Nabi (Saww) is equal to sum of knowledge of all other prophets, saints and people. Therefore this above stated statement only means Jili’s sheikh was a (imperfect) manifestation of 'Reality of Muhammad' and as such he was ‘Insan e kamil’ of his age (it means, in his age,  he had acquired  attributes and knowledge attributed to Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e kamil more than other people of his age; but he was not perfect manifestation of knowledge and attributes associated with Reality of Muhammad/ Insan e Kamil). As the entity of 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil' is a Principle of receiving and transmitting Divine Knowledge, Jili's Shaikh was also the Natural Principle of receiving and transmitting Divine knowledge but, of course, only to the extent he received knowledge from 'The Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e kamil'. As already mentioned, Jili's shaikh, who may be manifestation of only some of the Divine Names assigned to the 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil', is not equal to our Nabi (saww) who is embodiment of all attributes/ Divine Names assigned to 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil'.  Jili's view is quite different from that of 'Qadyanis'; Qadyanis dare equalize Mirza Qadyani to the person of our Nabi (saww). 'Qadyaniat' is, in fact, distorted form of this concept of 'Reality of Muhammad'/ 'Insan e Kamil'. (CONTINUED).




No comments:

Post a Comment