Thursday, 13 September 2012

'Twakkal'/Reliance on Allah and its Implications

‘Tawakkal’/reliance on Allah is not one’s desire to achieve one’s objective; it is one’s trust on Allah that Allah will fulfill one’s objective/desire. ‘Tawakkal’ is not possible without true faith in Allah. Sura al-talaq-3 states about who have faith in Allah: “And (Allah) will provide for him from where he does not expect. And whoever relies upon Allah - then He is sufficient for him. Indeed, Allah will accomplish His purpose. Allah has already set for everything a [decreed] extent”(al-talaq-3).

There are two types of ‘tawakkal’/reliance on Allah. First type of ‘tawakkal’/reliance on Allah is adopted along with taking required action to achieve the required objective. Quran states about Hazrat Shoaib (as): “ I only intend reform as much as I have power. And my success is not but through Allah. Upon him I have relied, and to Him I return (hud-88).  In this verse, Hazrat Shuaib (as) is stating about tawakkal/ reliance on Allah alongwith his power (to act) to achieve reforms.  

The second type of ‘tawakkal’ is exercised without taking required action to achieve the required objective.  Sura yunus-84 says: “And Moses said, "O my people, if you have believed in Allah, then rely upon Him, if you should be Muslims". In this case, Israelis did not have required power/capability to fight Pharoah, and as such could not take required action against Pharoah to achieve required objective i.e. liberation from Pharoah’s tyranny. But even then hazrat Moses (as) is advising his people to rely on Allah.  
The first type of ‘tawakkal’- adopted with required action- is made when resources for required action are available and can be used without compromising spiritual elevation. The second type of ‘tawakkal’- adopted without required action- is exercised when resources for required action are not available or cannot be used without compromising spiritual elevation.   'Tawakkal' with or without action is a relative thing; what should be 'tawakkal' with action, in view of one person, may be 'tawakkal' without action in view of another person.  
Another difference between two types of 'tawakkal' is that tawakkal without action may be adopted  only in individual matters; whereas in collective matters, 'tawakkal' with action is to be adopted.  Our Nabi (saww) undertook many wars (i.e. collective matters); it is tawakkal with action. In case of tawakkal with action in collective matters, basic resources for taking required action should be available though sufficient resources are not to be available necessarily. It means, in collective matters, if required resources are not available and resultantly required action cannot be taken, in such case a person/people may take resort to only individual 'tawakkal' without action, as was advised by Musa (a.s) to his people in Yunus-84 mentioned already. 
Our Nabi (saww) adopted tawakkal without action only in individual matters, if resources for required action were not available. In case of availability of resources, tawakkal with action in individual matters is our Nabi's (saww) sunnah). Similarly in case of collective matters, our Nabi (saww) always adopted 'tawakkal' with action.

It may be noted that 'tawakkal'/trust on Allah, in its nature, is a capacity which cannot be obtained by an individual without effort;  the capacity of relying on Allah (both in cases of 'tawakkal' with or without action) cannot be obtained without efforts. But when this capacity (to rely on Allah) is achieved, no special effort is required to exercise this capacity.  It may also be noted 'Tawakkal' with or without action has to be in accordance with our Nabi's (saw) Sunnah.

In addition to two types of 'tawakkal' described above,there is no third form of 'tawakkal'/ reliance on Allah.

 ‘Tawakkal’ may be adopted in all matters whether they are religious obligations/ permissibles or worldly obligations/ permissibles, because every worldly matter is covered by religion.
‘Dua’ is a second name of ‘tawakkal’ with or without required action.

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