Time and space are described as a twin/ interdependent phenomenon; there is no time without space and no space without time. Without ascertaining the validity of this scientific and philosophical concept of time and space, we would see how this concept is seen in the light of Quran and Sunnah.
Allah has created everything in pairs. This reality has been described in Quran which states: “And of all things We created two mates; perhaps you will remember” (al-dhariat-49). “And He Who created pairs (azwaj) of all things, and made for you of the ships and the cattle what you ride on” (al-zhkhruf-12).
From these verses, it is evident that Allah has created everything in pairs.
It means plants, animals, human beings, waters, all natural forces, all natural laws, ideas, practices, emotions - all exist in pairs. This reality has been discovered in respect of some creations like plants, waters, and some natural forces, but it is yet to be discovered in respect of other creations.
In the succeeding lines, we will see time and space also exist in pairs, without going into discussion whether time and space are created things or not. In other words, there are two types of time as there are two types of space.
Sura al-maarij states that “Lord of the Ascending Stairways. The angels and the Spirit will ascend to Him in a Day the extent of which is fifty thousand years” (al-ma,arij-3,4). These stairways or gates are used by Hazrat Gabrael (as) and other angels to reach to such divine proximity from where they receive commandments from Allah, and such ascendance of angels from earth to seventh sky happens within a DAY (twenty four hours) which is actually equal to fifty thousand years on earth. It means events happen quicker on 1st sky as we move from 1st sky to upper skies; the events occurring in fifty thousand years on earth take one day/24 hours to occur on upper skies. In other words, one second spent in the seventh sky would be equal to 211.22 days spent on earth; it means the events which happen in one second in seventh sky would happen in 211.22 days on earth. That is why Allah states: “Indeed, they see it [as] distant, But We see it [as] near”(al-ma,arij-6,7). It also explains why 'meraj' was possible only within a part of night; the events witnessed by Hazrat Muhammad (saw) during the ‘meraj travel’, would take thousands of years to take place according to earth time.
As we mentioned above, time and space are considered as a twin and interdependent phenomenon. Time is defined as a distance between two points in space. Simply speaking, if a person moves from point A to point B, the space travelled/ covered between points A and B is called Time to reach from A to B. in other words, if space between A and B is expanded, the time to reach from A to B will be expanded; and if the space between A and B is contracted/condensed, time to reach from A to B will be shortened. It means same event (in this case moving from A to B) will require more (expanded) time to happen, if space is expanded; as that event will require lesser time to happen, if space is condensed/ contracted.
According to Sura ma,arij-3-4 and 6-7, events happen quicker on 1st sky as we move from 1st sky to upper skies; it means space starts contracting/ condensing as we move from seventh sky to 1st sky. In other words, space starts expanding as we move from 1st sky to upper skies. It means both time and space become comparatively more contracted on earth as compared to upper skies, as we move from 1st sky to upper skies. It is just like making of waves when a pebble is dropped into pond of water; the waves nearer to the point of dropping of pebble are more contracted and start expanded more as they move away from the dropping point. The waves closer to the dropping point are seen comparatively more contracted as compared to outer waves as they move away from the dropping point.
In other words, we can say both Space and Time exist in pairs. One type of Time exists in expanded form which is paired with type of Time which exists in condensed/contracted form; similarly one type of space exists in expanded form which is paired with type of space which exists in contracted form.